Science and Hindsight

science, money, drugs, music - and me

The relative importance of different musical features of hit songs - from 1961 to 2011.


NASA just discovered a fifth moon orbiting the not-planet Pluto. Pluto still feels terrible about itself.

(Via cracked)

NASA just discovered a fifth moon orbiting the not-planet Pluto. Pluto still feels terrible about itself.

(Via cracked)

The 8 TeV proton collision experiments at CERN, from which the Higgs boson was discovered.

(Source: youtube.com)

Researchers of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider demonstrate the existence of a new boson at mass 125.3 ± 0.6 GeV. This new boson may be the elusive Higgs boson, or the result of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics.

(Source: cms.web.cern.ch)

Frisbie pie tins - the origin of the Frisbee as we know it.

Frisbie pie tins - the origin of the Frisbee as we know it.

4 Degrees With 0% Unemployment

This article features 4 majors that, statistically, nationwide have a 0% unemployment rate. They are:

  • Actuarial Science
  • Astrophysics
  • Pharmacology
  • Geophysics

Why do these careers have a 0% unemployment rate? Tell us what you think. Is it because very few people major in them, so the demand is high and the supply is low?

(challengestomillennials)

an agonist/receptor love story

Antagonists are trolls? I never thought of it that way :P

alternate ending:

cath what am I doing is this study is there life after tumblr help  

(quasiwhitegirl)

A “Women in science” outreach video released yesterday by the European Commission.

 

(Source: io9.com)

The disaster of TGN1412: A anti-inflammatory treatment gone pro-inflammatory
TGN1412 was a immunosuppressant drug being developed by TeGenero Immuno Therapeutics, intended for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, leukemia and rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is a monocolonal antibody which binds and activates the CD28 receptor of the immune system’s T-cells.
In animal trials, TGN1412 produced T-cell activation and expansion, accompanied by the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a net effect of T-cell downregulation. It had an anti-inflammatory effect, and no safety issues were observed.
In 2006, the first Phase I clinical trials with TGN1412 were conducted by Parexel (a company that carries out clinical trials on behalf of pharmaceutical companies). Six healthy volunteers were administered TGN1412 intravenously at 1/500th of the safe dose determined in animals.
About half an hour after receiving the drug, the subjects experienced headache, fever, pain, nausea and swelling. One of the patients suffered from a ballooned head. All six patients suffered from multiple organ failure, and were admitted to intensive care. The worst affected patient had to have his fingers and toes amputated, while another developed signs of lymphoma.
It was later confirmed that the subjects suffered from a cytokine storm. Instead of being anti-inflammatory, TGN1412 induced pro-inflammatory responses from T-cells.
It was later learned that TGN1412 did not have the same activity on the T-cells of animals, and did not activate the T-cells in the same way. Furthermore, the in vitro data from human T-cells were not conducted to take into account what could happen in vivo.
Finally, during the clinical trial, all six subjects received TGN1412 within a short time. For a compound that has never been tested in humans, it is common sense to stagger dosing amongst subjects by testing individuals one after the other.

The disaster of TGN1412: A anti-inflammatory treatment gone pro-inflammatory

TGN1412 was a immunosuppressant drug being developed by TeGenero Immuno Therapeutics, intended for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, leukemia and rheumatoid arthritis. The drug is a monocolonal antibody which binds and activates the CD28 receptor of the immune system’s T-cells.

In animal trials, TGN1412 produced T-cell activation and expansion, accompanied by the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, leading to a net effect of T-cell downregulation. It had an anti-inflammatory effect, and no safety issues were observed.

In 2006, the first Phase I clinical trials with TGN1412 were conducted by Parexel (a company that carries out clinical trials on behalf of pharmaceutical companies). Six healthy volunteers were administered TGN1412 intravenously at 1/500th of the safe dose determined in animals.

About half an hour after receiving the drug, the subjects experienced headache, fever, pain, nausea and swelling. One of the patients suffered from a ballooned head. All six patients suffered from multiple organ failure, and were admitted to intensive care. The worst affected patient had to have his fingers and toes amputated, while another developed signs of lymphoma.

It was later confirmed that the subjects suffered from a cytokine storm. Instead of being anti-inflammatory, TGN1412 induced pro-inflammatory responses from T-cells.

It was later learned that TGN1412 did not have the same activity on the T-cells of animals, and did not activate the T-cells in the same way. Furthermore, the in vitro data from human T-cells were not conducted to take into account what could happen in vivo.

Finally, during the clinical trial, all six subjects received TGN1412 within a short time. For a compound that has never been tested in humans, it is common sense to stagger dosing amongst subjects by testing individuals one after the other.

Heart-shaped heart muscle cells

Heart-shaped heart muscle cells

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